chronology lists the most important events and people
pertaining to African-American civil rights, and educational
struggle, desegregation and advancement on the national
and state levels, and at Texas A&M University from 1862-2000.
Lincoln signed Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act into
Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation, "freeing"
June 19, or Juneteenth, Emancipation Proclamation
first read to Texas slaves.
Congress ratified 13th Amendment, abolishing slavery.
Texas Legislature accepted terms of Morrill Land-Grant
Congress ratified 14th Amendment, granting full citizenship
governor signed law establishing Agricultural & Mechanical
College of Texas.
Texas Constitution enacted segregation in public facilities.
Legislature established state A&M college for "colored
College formally opened, initiating higher education
View (PV) established and placed under A&M Board of
of Bryan Public School for Coloreds, first educational
institution established for African-Americans in Brazos
Congress passed second Morrill Act, withholding funds
to states if admission is based on race unless a similar
college for African-Americans is maintained, allowing
"separate but equal" education.
Legislature passed act to apportion funds under Morrill
Land-Grant Act, three-fourths to A&M and one-fourth
to PV; not the one-third originally allocated by Governor
African-Americans enrolled in colleges, out of a total
population of 690,049 statewide (1910).
hired as district and county extension agents for
first time in Negro Cooperative Extension program
headquartered at PV.
for civil rights in Texas began with attack on legal
exclusion of African-American voters from Democratic
Legislature approved bill granting aid to African-Americans
wishing to pursue post-graduate work out of state.
The bill was pending since 1937, but the ruling in
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, and African-Americans
seeking admission to The University of Texas (UT)
Graduate School, prompted reintroduction and passage.
its annual conference in Houston, Texas, NAACP outlined
10-year plan to eliminate school segregation.
Conference on Negro Education released study, The
Senior Colleges for Negroes in Texas, acknowledging
lack of professional and graduate education for African-Americans
in Texas, and that PV was inadequately funded.
Legislature changed name of PV to PV University, with
permission to offer courses in law, medicine, engineering,
pharmacy, journalism and any course taught at UT in
attempt to avert African-Americans applying to all-white
Board passed resolution authorizing legal training
for African-Americans in Houston.
Legislature created Texas State University for Negroes
(later Texas Southern University).
UT charged with establishing law school for African-Americans
Supreme Court unanimously ruled that denying Heman
Sweatt entry to UT Law School violated 14th Amendment.
Some 32 African-Americans who applied to UT were accepted
into graduate and professional programs not offered
at exclusively Black colleges.
of North Carolina joined growing list of major Southern
universities to admit African-Americans.
African-Americans admitted to UT Dental School.
Some 22 formerly all-white colleges and universities
in Texas now admit African-Americans.
Supreme Court, in Brown v. Board of Education of
Topeka, Kansas, unanimously ruled that racial
segregation in public schools violated equal protection
clause of the 14th Amendment, reversing the Plessy
v. Ferguson decision that allowed "separate
In statewide poll, 80% of white population of Texas
opposed public-school integration.
of Alabama desegregated, with admittance of Autherine
A&M Student Senate voted 24-7 "opposing segregation."
campus-wide election on whether students were in favor
of or against segregation, A&M students voted to continue
Eisenhower enforced integration of Little Rock's Central
Congress passed Civil Rights Act, expanding protections
of voting rights.
A&M University System Board decided to "admit
qualified students regardless of race" to Arlington
State College to avoid threat of lawsuit for admittance
by three African-Americans.
of Mississippi forced to integrate over defiant objections
of governor and violent protests when federal marshals
accompany James Meredith to register.
of Alabama forced to integrate.
African-Americans quietly enrolled for first summer
session as "special students," becoming
the first African-Americans to attend A&M.
schools in both Bryan and College Station began process
of 1964 Civil Rights Act and its Assurance of Compliance
with Title VI of that act brought an end to the era
of segregation in Southern higher education.
freshmen became the first African-Americans in A&M
Corps of Cadets.
head football coach, Gene Stallings, publicly stated
that recruitment of African-American football players
would create disunity on the team. He was responding
to Southern Methodist University's recruitment of
Jerry Levias, the first African-American football
player in the SWC.
institutions of higher education in Texas desegregated.
Dixon, Jr., graduate student, became "first"
African-American to graduate from A&M.
group of African-American students at Texas A&M formed
African-Americans received athletic scholarships on
1967Ð68 track team; two others joined football team.
L. Courtney and Leon J. Greene graduated in January,
becoming the first undergraduates to graduate from
of Committee on Black Student Affairs as ad hoc committee
to promote dialog between African-American students
and Texas A&M administration.
of about 15 African-American students, members of
the Afro-American Society, issued list of 8 demands
to A&M, setting September as deadline for meeting
demands. The A&M System Board refused to consider
demands due to veiled threats of violence contained
student population estimated at 46.
F. Mack hired as instructor in political science,
becoming the "first" African-American on
the teaching staff at A&M.
Roscoe Lewis hired as professor in biochemistry.
students form Black Awareness Committee (BAC), successor
to the Committee on Black Student Affairs.
celebrated week of cultural activities as part of
annual Black Experience, coinciding with the national
Black History Week celebration.
student enrollment was about 100.
presented list of demands to Texas A&M through local
press, claiming A&M was a "racist institution..."
Demands included higher enrollment of African-American
students, hiring African-American faculty, and offering
Black history courses.
Sedberry was first African-American female in Corps
McClure elected first African-American student body
president at A&M.
African-Americans attended Texas A&M (0.37%), out
of 29,414 student population.
of Health, Education and Welfare investigated A&M
to determine compliance with Civil Rights Act of 1964.
faculty comprised 11 (0.6%) out of 1,831 faculty members
at Texas A&M.
of School Relations opened to aid in recruitment of
minorities to Texas A&M.
Curtis Mills was first African-American inducted into
Texas A&M Athletic Hall of Fame.
enrollment was 296 (0.8%) out of student population
Equal Education opportunity plan submitted by Texas
to U.S. Civil Rights office in compliance with Civil
Rights Act. Texas A&M had to enroll 525 more African-American
undergraduates, 13 more graduate students, 4 veterinary
and medical students by 1986, and 12 administrators
African-Americans attended Texas A&M out of 35,146
students, including 21 graduate students.
African-Americans attended Texas A&M out of 36,127
students; about 30 in Corps of Cadets.
11 African-American faculty members were at Texas
President's Committee on Minority Conditions, after
8-month study, issued report conceding minorities
were underrepresented among faculty and students.
of assistant director of Student Activities and coordinator
of Minority Affairs created as part of new policy
to recruit, increase and retain minority students.
Texas A&M's Medical School graduated first African-American,
African-Americans attended Texas A&M out of 36,846
A&M University System Board approved almost $1 million
budget for new minority-recruitment program.
500 African-Americans attended Texas A&M out of 36,827
African-American faculty numbered 18 (just over one-half
a percent); only 4 were tenured faculty.
of Texas A&M University System Black Student Retention
Committee to increase attendance of African-Americans
in Texas colleges and universities.
African-Americans attended Texas A&M out of 35,675
students, with freshman retention rate of 86.9.
A&M University System Board approved $1.3 million
appropriation for minority recruitment to fund scholarships
at undergraduate (520) and graduate (45) levels.
A&M graduated 115 minority students with B.S. degrees
in engineering, highest in U.S. 22 African-American
students received engineering degrees.
were 780 (or 2.2% of 36,570) African-American students
and 28 faculty members at A&M.
under federal desegregation plan agreed upon in 1983,
failed to reach its minority recruitment goals for
of Black Graduate Student Association.
of Multicultural Services Center to aid minority retention
African-Americans, including 87 graduate students,
attended Texas A&M out of 39,079 student body.
Goodwin appointed assistant deputy chancellor for
External Affairs, first African-American to hold such
a high position in Texas A&M University System.
African-American undergraduates and 143 graduate students
Celebration of first Black Former Student Reunion
which becomes annual, later biannual, event.
were 1,202 African-American students and 40 faculty
Committee study of minority conditions at Texas A&M
recognized A&M's progress in recruitment of minority
students, but said diversity lagged behind other state
public senior colleges and universities.
Alpha Epsilon fraternity hosted party with "Jungle
Fever" theme featuring black face, grass skirts
and "slave hunts." After charges of racism,
Inter-fraternity Council judicial board fined them
and placed them on probation.
in The Battalion mocking state representative
Ron Wilson caused uproar. President Mobley called
it "inappropriate and subject to misinterpretation."
visited by Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board
to review progress in diversity efforts.
Senate proposed all students take U.S. cultures and
international requirement courses in order to sensitize
them to diversity.
of University Diversity Awards to recognize accomplishments
supporting diversity of Texas A&M faculty, administration
and student body.
Armstrong, vice president for publicity of College
Republicans, forced to resign following posting of
flyers concerning affirmative action and perceived
by some as "racially offensive" or "insensitive
months of discussion among various campus organizations
concerning campus environment and diversity, MSC Council
created task force to study and recommend changes
to help MSC represent entire student body.
A&M administration rejected proposal by College of
Liberal Arts that all students be required to take
cultures course. Instead, each department could institute
own cultures course.
Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in Hopwood v. State
of Texas that UT could not discriminate against
white students to boost minority enrollment in its
announced it would no longer use race/ethnicity in
admissions or granting scholarships as a result of
U.S. Supreme Court decision not to hear appeal of
students numbered 1,320 out of student population
decision took effect. African-American freshman enrollment
of 178 down 23% from previous year; decline blamed
filed lawsuit against A&M because of Corps policy
barring display of Confederate symbols. Corps manual,
The Standard, bans display of divisive symbols.
on the Climate for Diversity: Findings and Suggested
Recommendations for the Texas A&M University Campus
Community-based on a campus-wide survey of racial/ethnic
issues which stemmed from 1996 request by President
Bowen to vice president for Student Affairs-to accurately
assess campus climate.
A&M Foundation created Foundation Excellence Award,
new scholarship program to help attract underrepresented
students to A&M.
hosted 63rd annual Texas State NAACP Convention.
Sippial made vice president for Administration, first
African-American vice president at A&M.
A&M University System Board of Regents granted preliminary
approval to addition of international and cultural
diversity to core curriculum.